Anaerobic fungi are the sole members of the phylum Neocallimstigomycota.

Within this phylum, there is only one class (Neocallimastigomycetes), one order (Neocallimastigales) and one family (Neocallimastigaceae).

Wthin the Neocallimastigaceae, there are currently 20 recognized anaerobic fungal genera. Many more genera remain to be isolated and/or characterized.

The 20 characterized anaerobic fungal genera are (listed in chronological order of characterization): Neocallimastix, Piromyces, Caecomyces, Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, Buwchfawromyces, Oontomyces, Pecoramyces, Feramyces, Liebetanzomyces, Aklioshbomyces,  Agriosomyces, Capellomyces, Ghazallomyces, Joblinomyces, Khoyollomyces, Tahromyces, Aestipascuomyces and Paucimyces.

Pictured below is a phylogenetic tree of anaerobic fungal LSU sequences, illustrating the relatedness of the different anaerobic fungal genera to each other (with the exception of the latest genus, Paucimyces).

LSU based phylogenetic tree kindly provided by Dr Radwa Hanafy

As of January 2021, each month we will feature details of one of these genera – building up an online resource that describes all these different anaerobic fungal genera.

This month we’d like to introduce you to the anaerobic fungal genus Cyllamyces.

Previous featured genera include:

Neocallimastix

Piromyces

Caecomyces

Orpinomyces

Anaeromyces